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With the demand for next-generation financial technology newly increasing, there have been functional analyses on blockchain for the safe use of electronic cash by sharing solely between counterparts and without the involvement of third parties. A blockchain is a public ledger for commerce and it prevents hacking during trades involving virtual cash. As a kind of distributed database and a data form list that constantly grows, it is planned to undermine arbitrary tampering by the operator of dispersed peers. Trade records are encrypted according to a rule and used in computers that operate the blockchain software. Using blockchain can supply higher protection reached to storing all data in the main database. In the data storage and control aspect, injury from attacks on a database can be controlled. Moreover, since the blockchain has an exposure point, it can provide clarity in data when used in a space demanding the disclosure of data. Due to such powers, it can be used in different places including the economic sector and the Internet of Things domain and its applications are predicted to grow. The blockchain completes a trade record through the work authentication technique when someone who lends electronic cash forms a league by connecting the trades over the network. The hash value is then caused by confirming it and joining the last block. This block is sometimes updated and remembered on the electronic cash transaction parties to communicate the most delinquent transaction detail block. This approach delivers protection for the transaction of electronic cash and permits the use of a dedicated mechanism. Cloud computing has been used in many IT conditions due to its efficiency and availability. Moreover, cloud security and solitude issues have been examined in terms of critical security elements: confidentiality, integrity, authentication, access control, and so on.

In this study, we aspire to explore the description and base technology of blockchain and survey the direction of investigations to date to discuss places to be studied, considering cloud computing domains. In addition, we examine the reviews for blockchain protection and security solutions in components. This study of blockchain technology surveys the blockchain by studying generic technology and research directions and discusses the explanation for using bitcoin safely as well as future study areas. The outcomes of this study can act as important base data in examining blockchain and will aid in comprehending the known safety problems thus far. We can foster the growth of prospective blockchain technology by comprehending the trend of blockchain protection. The rest of this analysis is arranged as follows. later, we discuss related works including the fundamental idea of blockchain and bitcoin as a use case. Later explains a precise discussion and survey on the security cares for blockchain including the settlement of blockchain, the security of transactions, the protection of wallets, and the security of software. Later we discuss blockchain protection case studies—authentication, security happenings, and 51% attack—and enhance the blockchain.

Related Works

In this section, we examine the fundamental concept of blockchain and the current research. We also study the exact use of blockchain in bitcoin.


A blockchain is a technology that permits all associates to maintain a ledger including all transaction data and to update their ledgers to maintain integrity when there is a new transaction. Since the promotion of the Internet and encryption technology has created it feasible for all components to confirm the trustworthiness of a transaction, the single point of failure emerging from the dependence on an authorized third party has been translated.


Bitcoin is the digital currency presented by Satoshi Nakamoto in 2009 to authorize transactions between peers without central control or a server to give and manage the currency. Bitcoins are sold with the P2P-based dispersed databases established on public-key cryptology. Bitcoin is one of the first performances of cryptocurrency in 1998. The bitcoin trade announcement is revealed over the network such that all peers can prove it and so money distribution is limited. The peers experiencing in the network have the same blockchain and the transaction data are held in blocks in the same way as the distributed storage of transaction data Although there are many dangers concerned in electronic transactions, bitcoin can be technically executed to cope with them. For example, an individual attempting to cause a falsified ticket record from another individual statement to his or her own account can be secured by securing it with the sender’s personal key. If numerous parties plan to use a bitcoin at the same time, the chain that loses in the match between peers will be destroyed.

Consideration for Blockchain Security: Challenges

Blockchain technology has been executed or learned as cyber money and is really used. Note, however, that extra security problems arising in blockchain contracts, transactions, wallets, and software have been reported. This report checks the signals of security problems presented to date and the security level of the current blockchain. We believe this shot is very important as the results can act as base data for planning future blockchain technology and improving security.

Settlement of Blockchain

Although there should only be one blockchain since it is the sequential connection of developed blocks, a blockchain may be divided into two because the two most offender blocks can be generated temporarily if two distinct peers increase in mining the solution for creating the block at the same time. In such a matter, the block that is not set as the belated block by the majority of peers in the bitcoin web to restart mining will become meaningless. In other words, bitcoin will keep the bulk of peers who have 50% or more mining ability. Therefore, if an assailant has 51% mining ability, a “51% Attack”, wherein the attacker has control of the blockchain and she can include falsified transactions, can be a problem.

Security of Transaction

Since the script used in inputs and outputs is a programming language with flexibility, other transaction forms can be made using such a bitcoin contract is a form of using bitcoin for the existing authentication and economic service. Widely used form problems making the contract using the script that has a considerable-signature procedure called multisig. Although the scripts are utilized to translate a wide range of bitcoin problems, the case of the improperly configured transactions has also increased as the complexity of the script increases. A bitcoin using an improperly configured locking writing is pitched since nobody can use it as the unlocking script cannot be created. To this end, there are studies that offer examples of bitcoin contract-type trades to confirm the accuracy of a script used in a transaction.

Security of Wallet

The bitcoin address is worth a public key encoded with a group of public and private keys. Therefore, the locking writing of a bitcoin transaction with an oration as work can be unlocked with a script that has the agreement signed with the public key of the speech and the personal key. The bitcoin wallet accounts report such as the private key of the analysis to be used for unlocking script. It suggests that failure of data in the wallet reveals a loss of bitcoin since the data is required for using the bitcoin. Therefore, the bitcoin wallet has evolved the primary subject of bitcoin aggression through hacking.

Security of Software

The bug of the software used in bitcoin can be needed. Although the official Bitcoin Developer Documentation site clearly explains all bitcoin operations, the bitcoin core software is always useful as the connection since the complicated methods of the early bitcoin invention have been established through the software managed by Satoshi Nakamoto. Nonetheless, even the bitcoin core software, which must be more reliable than anything, is not Positive from the issue of software malfunction such as bugs. The most superior software bug is the CVE-2010-5139 vulnerability that appeared in August. Due to the bug yielded by integer overflow, an invalid transaction wherein 0.5 bitcoin was introduced as 184 trillion bitcoin was formed in a normal block, and the matter was not settled until 8 h later. Moreover, there was a bug where a union processed in version 0.8 was not processed in version 0.7 as the database was changed from BerkeleyDB to LevelDB since the bitcoin performance of the bitcoin core was elevated from 0.7 to 0.8. It caused the peers of version 0.7 and equivalents of version 0.8 to have additional blockchains for 6 h. Both of these problems are cases showing that the widespread belief in the safety of bitcoin trades of a block is having significant depth after some time and can be threatened by a software bug.

Blockchain Security Case Studies

The demand for the security of bitcoins established on the blockchain has grown since hacking cases were reported. Mt. Gox, a bitcoin interaction established in Tokyo reported losses of USD 8.75 million due to hacking in June 2011, and bitcoin wallet assistance InstaWallet reported losses of USD 4.6 million due to hacking in April 2013. In November of the same year, anonymous marketplace Sheep Marketplace was compelled to shut down after someone stole USD 100 million worth of bitcoins. Mt. Gox, which had already mourned losses due to hacking, again conveyed losses of USD 470 million due to hacking in February 2014 and subsequently pointed for bankruptcy. The problems persisted, with the Hong Kong-based bitcoin exchange Bitfinex reporting failures of USD 65 million due to hacking in August 2016. These problems have introduced awareness of the necessity for protection. There have been studies on the safety of blockchain to overcome such safety problems and many reports have been published. In particular, since blockchain is the generic technology of cyber money, the impairments can be deep in cases of misuse and tries to steal cyber money occur repeatedly. Therefore, it seems very influential to comprehend the attack cases known so far and to have out inquiries to draw up countermeasures.


An essential part of blockchain security is security connected to the personal key used in encryption. An attacker takes out different attempts to access a user’s personal key held in the user’s computer or a smartphone in order to hack the bitcoin. The assailant will install malware on the computer or smartphone to leak the user’s private key and use it to hack the bitcoin. Some studies have suggested a hardware token for the support of a transaction to cover the personal key. Other studies indicated strengthened authentication standards for the storage unit including the bitcoin. Two-factor authentication is supposed to be the greatest method for supporting authentication.

Security Incidents

With more people using bitcoins, chances of malware and malicious codes targeting bitcoins have also been live reported. Malware can hack bitcoins by contaminating computers. To translate such a situation, a PC security key must be established to catch malicious code. One recently found negative code looted game reports and can be used for stealing the bitcoin accounts. With more bitcoins being utilized for the cash trade of online game items, safety steps to cope with it are required. The Distributed Denial of Service spell floods the targeted server with superfluous demands to overload the system and control the condition of normal service to other users. Thus, it can control the users of blockchain from obtaining assistance. DDoS attacks contain the bandwidth-consuming attack that surpasses the bandwidth of all systems using the same network and the PPS-consuming attack that causes inner system failure or the denial of assistance to other servers in the same network. The http-flooding attack transfers a large number of http packets to a targeted server to cause the rejection of the service. Since the bitcoin service must be always provided to the users, countermeasures to DDoS attacks are needed

51% Attack

In bitcoin conditions, a 51% attack alters and manufactures 51% of the registers simultaneously. Thus, it is a very hard attack to blend. The assailant must have 51% or more calculating ability of all users, deliberately cause two branches, and place the targeted branch as the fair blockchain. To solve the issue, an intermediate confirmation process must be delivered to stop such tampering a race attack causes hundreds of trades and transmits them to numerous users when a fair transaction is sent. Since many users are possible to think the shared transaction to be legitimate, failures can be supported if 51% of users modify the ledger. In a Finney attack, an attacker causes a block having altered data and brings out the attack with it. Such aggression can be stopped when the attack mark sets the trade-in standby mode until block confirmation.

Improved Blockchain

Since the current payment system is very difficult and transaction facilitators are spread, the points targeted by security attacks are growing. A user planning to trade money will pay an annual membership fee to obtain a card and use it to buy goods or use services. The customer’s bank and the merchant’s bank interact with each other to recompense the fee and a shop planning to use the card accepts it from a bank and uses it for the acquisition of goods and services. A simplification of transactions is needed since more people use smartphones to purchase goods or services.

Secure Blockchain Solutions in Cloud Computing

If the user details are disclosed in the cloud computing environment, monetary and psychological Injuries can occur due to the leak of users’ sensitive data. The security of the protection and transmitting data, such as confidentiality and probity, in the cloud computing environment, is particularly studied. However, analyses on privacy protection and obscurity are not sufficient. Blockchain is a usual technology for providing anonymity. If connected with the cloud computing environment, blockchain can be elevated to a convenient service that equips stronger security. User anonymity can be provided if the blockchain method is used when saving user data in the cloud computing environment. An electronic wallet is installed when using blockchain technology. If the electronic wallet is not correctly deleted, the user data can be left behind. The remaining user data can be used to think about the user information. To crack this problem, we propose a solution that installs and deletes the electronic wallet securely.

The blockchain is used to remove the data of the user who uses cloud computing. The electronic wallet is securely released by transmitting the finished message. The leak of user data can be controlled only when the electronic wallet is fully removed. Even though many existing studies have been conducted on the blockchain protocol, a process for removing the electronic wallet ultimately is given to provide user anonymity and privacy protection. We reached the process with existing studies in terms of confidentiality, integrity, anonymity, privacy protection, and residual data protection. Confidentiality statements if the data is leaked to unauthorized peers, whereas goodness checks if the data used in transactions are limited or falsified without sanction during transfer or hold. Anonymity must ensure that the peer implicated in a transaction is not identifiable. Privacy guard protects the personal statement of peers experienced in the transaction, whereas residual transmission protection checks the safe expulsion of user data at the time of trade stop and program removal.


A blockchain has eliminated the need for a server, eliminating the need for a central authority, and has accelerated transactions by participants collectively storing transaction records and, finally, approving transactions using P2P network technology. The blockchain has a distributed structure and makes use of the peer network as well as the computing resources of peers. To increase the security of blockchain, technical measures such as proof of labour and proof of stack are enforced. Despite the fact that the security of the blockchain is constantly being improved, issues have continued to be rumoured, and there are active security studies. An aggressor makes numerous attempts to gain access to a user's private key stored on the user's computer or a smartphone in order to hack the bitcoin. There are studies on using a secure token or securely storing it to protect the private key. Throughout this study, we will refer to blockchain technology and connected devices and examined the trend of studies thus far to discuss additional areas to be studied Several current issues must be addressed before using blockchain in a cloud computing environment. Even now, blockchain raises several issues, such as the security of transactions, wallets, and packages, and numerous studies are being conducted to address these issues. When utilizing blockchain in a cloud computing setting, the obscurity of user data should be ensured, and the user data should be completely deleted once the service is removed. If the user data is not deleted but instead remains, the user data is frequently guessed from the remaining data. As a result, this study mentioned the security strategy of presenting a technique of secure blockchain use and removal protocol. Given the environment in which a massive amount of data is transmitted, it appears that studies on potency, in addition to security, are required.

If you have any doubt about the topic. Don’t hesitate to contact us Airzero sec will be your digital partner.

Email:[email protected]

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Author - Johnson Augustine
Ethical Hacker and Data Security Researcher
Founder: Airo Global Software Inc
LinkedIn Profile:

How is it different from a software wallet?

Cryptocurrency keys can be kept in two types of wallets - software and hardware.

Software wallets are like smartphone apps that digitally keep private keys. Most software wallets don’t delegate users to keep private keys but may contain a commission for trading via the app. These wallets can be weak to malware.

Hardware wallets and physical machines act like cold storage for confidential keys. The passwords are covered by a PIN, making it hard for hackers to extract private keys as the information is not exposed to the Internet.

The upsides of a hardware wallet

Hardware wallets are said to be suitable as they can be linked to trading exchanges to complete transactions.

Hardware wallets are often kept in a shielded microcontroller and cannot be moved out of the machine, making them safe. Their seclusion from the Internet also mitigates the chance of the assets being compromised. Moreover, it is not that safe on any third-party app.

The case is an insanely safe hardware bitcoin wallet:

You shouldn’t charge anyone with your bitcoins, and Case is well conscious of that. Over the past few years, Mt.Gox, Bitstamp, and numerous other centralized services have regretted trying security breaches. But Case is about to put a finish to all this, as this startup has built one of the most secure hardware bitcoin wallets in the world. The startup is throwing onstage today at Disrupt NY.

“There’s no effort and Safeway to use bitcoin. You’re either getting protection, or you’re getting the comfort of use,” co-founder and CEO Melanie Shapiro told me. Case wants to give both — safety and ease of use.

The case is a small credit card-shaped machine with a small screen, a fingerprint sensor, a camera, a built-in GSM chip, and a few buttons. Any time you like to make a bitcoin marketing, you press the bitcoin button, scan the QR code with the camera, lift your finger and you’re done. Everything occurs on the device; you don’t have to log in with a complex password or use a smartphone app. You can actually buy and sell bitcoins from this machine.

Behind the settings, Case equips a highly assured multi-signature wallet. You require two signatures to make a trade. When you first start your Case device, you create a private key on the machine itself, and this key will remain on your device forever. “We don’t create that private key — the appliance doesn’t come pre-populated with a private key,” Shapiro said.

The case also holds a key in its encrypted online database. Transactions are only kept by the server if the fingerprint scan checks your biometric data. The small device shares with these servers using its built-in GSM chip. The case functions like the Kindle with 3G connectivity, indicating that you can use the machine in more than a hundred countries around the world without including paying for a subscription.

But what if you fail your Case wallet? As you require two signatures to transmit bitcoins using Case, you won’t be capable of recovering your bitcoins. But fortunately, the startup has a backup method. It also holds the third key in an offline vault. You can recover this key after verifying your uniqueness to the company.

If you have any doubt about the case wallet. Don’t hesitate to contact us through the given email. Airzero Sec will be your digital partner.

Email:[email protected]

enter image description here Author - Johnson Augustine
Ethical Hacker and Data Security Researcher
Founder: Airo Global Software Inc
LinkedIn Profile:

Bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies are regularly performing the news for their animated prices. But did you know that Bitcoin is actually safer than some commercial systems? Keep studying to see why Bitcoin is frequently safe, how it operates, and how to manage your digital assets securely.

What is Bitcoin?

Bitcoin is a digital currency built-in 2009. A decentralized cryptocurrency, Bitcoin relies on a peer-to-peer network called the blockchain to list transactions, rather than any official authority. There are no physical bitcoins, and their value can change widely depending on the market.

Bitcoin has motivated a group of other cryptocurrencies, contain Ethereum, Cardano, Dogecoin, and thousands of others. Anyone with the mechanic know-how can generate their own cryptocurrency. While that might not sound very safe, cryptocurrency and blockchain technology are surprisingly robust.

Why is Bitcoin safe?

Bitcoin technology is mostly secure because it’s built on secure technology: the blockchain. Bitcoin is also cryptographic, public, decentralized, and permissionless. As an investment though, Bitcoin may not be secure due to market volatility. Here are some reasons why Bitcoin tech is secure:

Reason #1: Bitcoin uses secure cryptography

How is Bitcoin safe? Bitcoin is backed by a special system called the blockchain. Compared to other financial problems, the blockchain is a problem technology that relies on safe core concepts and cryptography.

Blockchain uses volunteers — lots of them — to sign hashes that validate transportations on the Bitcoin network using cryptography. This machine makes it so transactions are basically irreversible, and the data safe of Bitcoin is more powerful.

Reason #2: Bitcoin is public

While being public may not sound secure, Bitcoin’s ledger clarity means that all the transactions are open to the public even if the people involved are anonymous. That makes it very important to cheat or scam the system.

With all the data publically open, there’s nothing for serious actors to “hack in” and see — all transactions are public to everyone.

Contrast that to the general data breaches of established companies, and Bitcoin starts to sound a lot more reliable. When you buy or sell bitcoin, you don’t attach any personal data to the blockchain like your passwords, credit card numbers, or your physical address, so there’s nothing to leak.

That’s very different from when hackers break into regular financial systems — just ask the folks over at Equifax.

Reason #3: Bitcoin is decentralized

Bitcoin’s distanced network has over ten thousand nodes all over the world that store track of all events happening on the system. This large number of nodes guarantees that if something happens to one of the servers or nodes, others can pick up the slack.

It also means that trying to hack into one of the servers is pointless. There’s nothing there you could steal that the other nodes and servers couldn’t check unless you happen to control 51% of the nodes — not impossible, but extremely unlikely.

Reason #4: Bitcoin doesn’t require permissions

Being free and decentralized involves very little if you have to be left in by some authorization. With no governing body, Bitcoin is open to everyone. Its lack of permissions stores Bitcoin open and fair for everyone.

What is the blockchain, exactly?

Blockchain is a shared ledger that uses hash functions to provide a unique fingerprint of every transaction, recording and verifying them. When each step is signed and verified as unusual, it’s given to enter a “block” of other changes and becomes difficult to modify. These blocks together form the blockchain.

How secure is the blockchain?

It’s guarded by the 256-bit SHA hash functions, the same level of protection that banks, the military, and virtual private networks use to encrypt their operations. But unlike encryption, which can be decrypted, SHA hash functions provide a unique fingerprint for each event that cannot be replaced. In other words, cryptography in blockchains is related to signing the data with a single, unbreakable identifier that other network participants can verify using the same cryptographic algorithm.

The blockchain also increases security by consensus. For it to be chopped, someone would want to take over 51% of Bitcoin drilling abilities, which would be incredibly unlikely. However, your cryptocurrency wallet isn’t necessarily secure — and that’s where you’d kept your bitcoin.

Does Bitcoin use encryption?

No, Bitcoin does not use encryption. It’s called “cryptocurrency” because its digital signature algorithm uses the corresponding mathematical methods used for a variety of encryption based on elliptic curves. Bitcoin does the Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm with the elliptic curve secp256k1, not encryption.

Bitcoin security issues

While Bitcoin technology is rather reliable, there are some risks to think about before you make a purchase. Bitcoin isn’t anonymous, the about of cryptocurrencies can be very volatile, Bitcoin relies on passwords, and cryptocurrency wallets are not safe from theft.

Bitcoin isn’t anonymous

While Bitcoin does change your personal data, it doesn’t disguise the address of your crypto wallet. That means you’re not “anonymous” but “pseudonymous” — and someone could use evidence to track down your personal data. Governments can subpoena reports, and cybercriminals use all sorts of illegitimate ways to obtain details. Because all the records are known, if someone knew how much you used, when, and where you spent it, they could expose your transaction on the ledger and follow it back to your wallet. Once they’ve done that, they could map your spending habits, collect data on your life, and maybe even force you. But with the current price of web tracking these days, it’s considerably more likely that sponsors or data brokers are spying on your private business through your internet browsing.

Bitcoin is volatile

Although Bitcoin uses strong cryptography, you could claim it’s not a secure investment because of its volatility. With no governing body and an international, 24/7 market, a bitcoin worth $60,000 one day can be worth $30,000 just a few days later. Though there have been some years of security, these nevermore last long. After all, there’s a reason why people play that Bitcoin is just astrology for men. Invest at your personal risk, knowing that you may incur serious losses.

Bitcoin passwords can be lost

Bitcoins are saved in crypto wallets. If you forget your Bitcoin password — that is, the password to your wallet — you’ll be in difficulty. There’s no middle authority you can talk to, to recover your account. Many people have lost millions of dollars after losing to remember the password to their crypto wallet. That’s just one more idea you should always use a password manager. But even your own anticipations might not be enough. One popular crypto exchange failed to repay $190 million to clients after its founder died without disclosing the only password.

Bitcoin can be stolen

Bitcoin’s blockchain can’t be chopped, because all information is already publicly available, but can bitcoin be hacked? Sort of — just because bitcoins are broadly safe on a system level doesn’t mean hackers can’t use other methods to keep them. Here are some of the problems to your cryptocurrency:

  • Phishing attacks: This classic social engineering method can fool you into sharing all kinds of personal information, from your banking details to your crypto wallet features. Always be wary of spoofed emails or messages that request your individual data.
  • Fake websites: A sneaky fake website could fool you into giving your own info over to hackers.
  • Man-in-the-middle attacks: Although unlikely, a hacker could start a man-in-the-middle attack on your node or crypto wallet.
  • Malware: A lot of malware efforts revolve around bitcoins and Bitcoin wallets. Watch out for malicious code that can enter your crypto wallet or crypto-mining malware that makes your computer mine crypto for a hacker.

It’s even feasible for some wily hackers to steal wallet keys from cold storage, although the technique is still fairly experimental.

With the complexity and novelty of Bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies, it can be difficult to know if you’re waiting safely. A robust antivirus like AVG AntiVirus FREE will guard against phishing attacks, fake websites, and all kinds of malware. Get 24/7 protection so you can trade, mine, and browse securely.

Should I try Bitcoin?

As with any investment, you’ll have to make your personal choices. Is Bitcoin really safe? As explained above, there are lots of ideas Bitcoin is safe. But there are lots of ideas to be skeptical of as well — and only you can determine what you think is a safe investment. If you do decide to invest, be ready for all types of highs and lows.

If you have any doubt about Bitcoin. Don’t hesitate to contact us through the given email. Airzero sec will be your digital partner.

Email:[email protected]

enter image description here Author - Johnson Augustine
Ethical Hacker and Data Security Researcher
Founder: Airo Global Software Inc
LinkedIn Profile:

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In this digital era, it is very important to secure our credit cards. In this blog, you got a clear idea of how to secure your Credit card.

What are the benefits of using a credit card?

  • It is safer than cash
  • It is your network that you have covered
  • It always keeps you protected

Safer than cash

When it comes to peace of mind, there’s no better way to pay than with your payment card. There’s a whole range of security tools and safety features made into your card. So whether you’re purchasing in a store, online or on your mobile device, you can do it all with courage.

Your network has you covered

When you use your credit card, you’re used by a payment network that’s designed to be safe and smart.

Keeping you protected

Compared to cash or cheque, payment cards are a secure way to pay. Their various-layer security safeguards you against unwanted transactions. Payment cards also leave a trail, unlike cash, which financial organizations can follow to copy and recover your money. But you also play a major part when it raises your safety, by checking your transactions, keeping your card secure and your PIN secret.

What are the Security tips to protect yourself?

  • First, Look for the Mastercard Identity Check logo
  • Second, Sign up for Transaction alerts
  • Third, Be familiar with your card issuer’s policies
  • Fourth, Beware of phishers
  • Fifth, Check your statements
  • Sixth, Keep your ATM PIN private

Look for the Mastercard Identity Check logo:

When you purchase at online merchants that support Mastercard Identity Check, you can enjoy real peace convincing your purchases are protected with an extra layer of safety, with or without a one-time password.

Sign up for Transaction alerts

Transaction notifications let you know whenever there’s a play in your accounts, so it’s a good idea to sign up all your cards for them.

Be familiar with your card issuer’s policies

Every bank has its own security in place for your peace of mind. Talk to your bank to find out what they are.

Beware of phishers

Phishers try to gain personal details from you, like your payment card number, PIN, username or password. Don’t react to them. Instead, call your bank to make a report.

Check your statements

Regularly monitor your bank and card statements. Call your bank if you point to any unwanted transactions.

Keep your ATM PIN private

Don’t share your ATM Pin with anyone. If you don't remember your PIN or think it may have been compromised, ask your bank for a new one.

If you have any doubts about this topic or have to get services and get the best cyber security services. Feel free to contact us. AIR ZERO CLOUD will be your digital partner. Email id: [email protected]

enter image description here Author - Johnson Augustine
Ethical Hacker and Data Security Researcher
Founder: Airo Global Software Inc
LinkedIn Profile:

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What Is Reverse Engineering In Android?

People often respect the open nature of Android as it is something that empowers innovators to build backbone products. But only a few know the opposite side of this openness Vulnerability. Having said that, Android offers app developers a big milestone that most mobile operating systems don’t. Being an open-source framework, it is fairly easy for an app developer to study its source code and modify it the way they want. The technique through which most app developers re-obtain source code either with the aim of recreating the program, to build something similar to it, or to identify an app’s weakness and its security is known as Reverse Engineering in Android.

How Reverse Engineering Can Be Used To Decompile App Code?

Android apps are always weak so it is easy to attack as the code is not rendered into machine code, passing it prone to extraction and reverse engineering. The vulnerable program can then be used for a variety of reasons, which could be a dangerous issue for any serious mobile app business such as:

  • Re-using the code for one’s own benefit
  • Find vulnerabilities in the code
  • Search for personal and sensitive data hardcoded in the code
  • Malware fishing
  • Modifying the functionality of an existing application

What Are Some Threats To A Decompiled Android Code?

  • Android Malware and Security Issues
    Android apps have serious issues from various types of malware such as spyware, trojan, adware etc. Although some malware is not supposed to cause any threat, there is some malware that can lead to unexpected and unwanted problems like localized denial of service, abnormal battery conditions etc. Moreover, malware like Spywares can access a smartphone’s camera and microphone module to send data back to hackers. Adware is another type of malware that utilizes the existing various communication platforms like Email, MMS, Bluetooth or SMS etc. To transmit dangerous advertisements to certain numbers of people.
  • Security problems due to code de-compiling in Android
    The code that is extracted can result in decreased security, freely available in-app purchases and can lead to misplaced user data that could result in bad pricing elasticity. These are some of the reasons why someone would de-compile your program, and you can now know a little bit of the damage they can put you through. In mobile application development, security is even more than a regular need as most of the apps have heavy data such as Financial apps or Healthcare apps.

We often come across problems like this one.

A good company will never go behind their customer’s back and develop a similar app for a rival, and most developers won’t leave their name within the app’s program. Air Zero Sec, one of the best cybersecurity company in Kerala, will help you with these types of common threats that happen in android applications. However, a few developers leave their names inside the comments, which can then be used to extract the agency or freelancer that developed it. But that isn’t what I want you to take from this problem. By now, you are able to understand and know that people are actively trying to decompile your apps, and you need to do something about it. Find a trusted cybersecurity service provider and they will resolve the issues that your company is facing.

How To Avoid Android App Decompilation On To Prevent Reverse Engineering?

  • Put Important Code on Server When you put your important program on the server, it reduces the chances of stealing your source code, as the main program will remain on the server and only results can be seen. A server farm is a huge expense, and it’s not a great solution for everyone. Moreover, if there is an issue of poor network connectivity, your Android app users will be irritated and your customers are more likely to lose business. There is a better solution too. Suppose there is a block of a program that you do not want to let out. Keep that block of the program in hardware that you control. This will make the extractor job painful to get your apk source code. And, to add more security and safety, you could add double obfuscation to combat any middle attacks.

  • Use Proguard Proguard is an obfuscation tool that is useful for safeguarding applications using a license database. The tool helps to increase the difficulty of reversing your Android app code. A commercial version of Proguard is also available named Dexguard. Dexguard goes the extra mile in the matter of security and safe increasing difficulty. Though, your program could always be converted into small, which is useful for developers to figure out what you do with it. But, again, if you don’t want people to see your program, don’t put it on their devices.


There are, of course, other ways to make Android reverse engineering harder, but the above two are the most effective among all. If you have any queries about this topic or have to get services and consultations against these serious cyber threats. Feel free to contact us. AIRZERO SEC will be your strong firewall.
E-mail id: [email protected]

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Author - Johnson Augustine
Ethical Hacker and Data Security Researcher
Founder: Airo Global Software Inc
LinkedIn Profile:

The term ‘mobile payments’ refers simply to all payments that are made using your mobile device. Do you find it convenient to shop and bank online using mobile payment apps? Most would have ‘yes’ as an answer. But, are we letting ‘convenience’ overshadow ‘security’? An attacker can easily get hold of your personal and banking information if the app or the mobile site you are using is compromised. The chances of this happening significantly increases if your mobile device itself is infected. Mobile payments include the use of mobile wallets and mobile money transfers. There are two types of mobile payments: online or in-app purchases, and using a POS terminal in a bricks-and-mortar store. Here are some of the biggest mobile payment security risks, and steps you can take to protect yourself.

Losing your phone is like losing your credit card

Your smartphone is a small, slippery object that provides a huge window into your personal life. It contains the names and contact information of every key acquaintance in your life, your personal photo collection and social media apps. It also can provide access to credit and bank accounts via a mobile wallet and payment apps.

Most smartphones contain built-in protections that can prevent a phone thief from using your mobile wallet to rack up fraudulent charges. The best way to keep a thief out of your phone is to require two-factor authentication to unlock it – ideally, a PIN combined with a biometric method such as your fingerprint, facial recognition or an iris scan.

Weak Passwords

Being hacked due to weak passwords, or overused passwords, is one of the oldest forms of hacking. Even the strongest form of password hashing encryption, used by corporate security firms, can fail when it comes to cyber criminals decryption tools.

It may sound obvious, but don’t use the same password for everything, and try and change them once a month. Look into using a passwords manager such as LastPass. These online password resources will generate strong passwords using a combination of numbers, letters and special characters, and store them all in an encrypted vault.

Cyberthieves can ‘spoof’ your mobile wallet

When you add a credit or debit card to your mobile wallet, the card number is stored securely via encryption, which disguises it with a code created by an algorithm. Additionally, the major mobile wallet providers use randomly generated payment tokens to ensure your card information is not seen by merchants or even the wallet providers when you make purchases.

Load your cards into your mobile wallet while at home, using your own password-protected Wi-Fi network. If you need to manage your mobile wallet while away from your home, consider setting up a personal virtual private network (VPN) for your phone.

Using Public Wifi

Some of the most popular ways hackers can compromise public wifi are by creating fake connections and sidejacking. Fake connections are created by setting up an access point (AP), which can be done using any form of device with internet access, with the same name as a legitimate connection. Hackers then intercept any data in transit, such as a bank transfer or online payment.

Using a VPN, Virtual Private Network is one of the most secure forms of protection against hacking. A VPN establishes a level of encryption between your device and the website you’re browsing, so any data transmitted is unreadable without the a unique decryption key. Be careful when choosing a VPN, as even these can be compromised or faked.

Your phone can become infected with malware

Cyber criminals use malware to remotely commandeer computers, smartphones and other devices or steal users’ passwords and other private information. Malware infection typically results from an unwitting user clicking on a sketchy ad or a phony link sent by a malicious third party. Computers are generally more vulnerable than cellphones, but mobile malware is a growing threat.

A bank or card issuer can employ security features on its own payment or banking app, but it can’t control the security features of third-party browsers where many customers manage their online accounts.

Nevertheless, avoid clicking on links included in suspicious ads, email or text messages from unfamiliar sources. And Clyde recommends installing anti-virus software on your phone as an extra safeguard.

Human Error

Human error or carelessness has been cited as the number one contributor to security breaches. Hackers rely on human error when planning some form of cyber attack as they count on user to click on insecure links, open emails containing security threats and accidentally downloading malware.

When it comes to protecting yourself against phishing, malware, and identity fraud, it almost always comes down to using common sense. As mentioned above, don’t click on any links in emails from unknown senders or sources, be vigilant with your passwords and how you store them. If you want to start using a mobile wallet, load your cards into your phone at home using your own private wifi. As this is password protected it is much safer than doing this at work or in public.

So, to help you avoid such a disaster, here are 9 safety steps for making secure mobile payments.

  1. Download mobile payment apps only from official stores such as Google Play and Apple Store.

  2. Before you download any app, verify the publisher. The ‘Top Developer’ badge (in Google Play) is usually a good sign that the app is safe. Read its user reviews and just Google “Is (app name) safe?”.

  3. Carefully read the permissions that the app asks for. If you think a mobile payment app is asking for more than what is required, do not install it. If you have any doubts regarding the permissions, just contact the app’s manufacturer via their Twitter handle.

  4. Never visit an online banking or shopping website by clicking on a link received in an email or text message.

  5. Always choose a strong password for accounts for net banking or online payment apps. It should be a mix of uppercase and lowercase letters and special characters.

  6. Do not use unsecured, public Wi-Fi networks for onling banking or shopping. Doing so may let an attacker steal your information.

  7. Only use established and well-known websites to for online shopping and paying for utilities.

  8. Ensure your banking transactions are OTP (one time password) enabled. While paying a purchase through net banking, debit/credit card, you will enter your login ID and password (or card details) and also an OTP (code sent to your registered mobile number) before you can make the final payment. So, even if an attacker manages to steal your net banking/card details, payment won’t go through without the OTP.

  9. Install a mobile security app that is built with multiple layers of security. The Quick Heal Total Security App comes with SafePe besides other advanced features. SafePe is especially designed to secure your financial information when you use mobile payment apps for online shopping, banking, paying bills, etc.


Mobile payment security concerns are still at large amongst businesses and consumers alike. However, with the correct education and proper training, mobile payments could see a dramatic current and future growth opportunities. Retailers could finally, collectively, see the huge benefits of going cardless, cashless and paperless, if only to reduce queues at the counter.

Android is a Linux platform programmed with Java and enhanced with its own security mechanisms tuned for a mobile environment. As a developer writing for Android, you will need to consider how you will keep users safe as well as how to deal with constrained memory, processing and battery power. You must protect any data users input into their device with your application, and not allow malware to access the application’s special permissions. How you achieve this is partly related to which features of the platform you use.

Android Permissions Review

Applications need approval to do things their owner might object to, like sending SMS messages, using the camera or accessing the owner’s contact database. Android uses manifest permissions to track what the user allows applications to do. An application’s permission needs are expressed in its AndroidManifest.xml and the user agrees to them upon install.

Encrypt Data on External Storage

The internal storage capacity of an Android device is often limited. Therefore, at times, you might have no choice but to store sensitive data on external storage media, such as a removable SD card.

Because data on external storage media can be directly accessed by both users and other apps on the device, it is important that you store it in an encrypted format. One of the most popular encryption algorithms used by developers today is AES, short for Advanced Encryption Standard, with a key size of 256 bits.

Writing code to encrypt and decrypt your app's data using the javax.crypto package, which is included in the Android SDK, can be confusing. Therefore, most developers prefer using third party libraries, such as Facebook's Conceal library, which are usually much easier to work with.

Use Intents for IPC

Experienced programmers who are new to Android application development often try to use sockets, named pipes, or shared files to asynchronously communicate with other apps installed on an Android device. These approaches are not only hard and inelegant, but also prone to threats. An easier and more secure approach to interprocess communication on the Android operating system is to use intents.

To send data to a specific component of an app, you must create a new instance of the Intent class and use its setComponent() method to specify both the package name of the app and the name of the component. You can then add data to it using the putExtra() method.


All communications between your app and your servers must be over an HTTPS connection, preferably using the HttpsURLConnection class. If you think using HTTP for data that is not confidential is fine, think again.

Many Android users connect to several open Wi-Fi hotspots in public areas every day. Some of those hotspots could be malicious. A malicious hotspot can easily alter the contents of HTTP traffic to make your app behave in an unexpected manner, or worse still, inject ads or exploits into it.

Use GCM Instead of SMS

ack when GCM, short for Google Cloud Messaging, didn't exist, many developers were using SMS to push data from their servers to their apps. Today, this practice is largely gone.

If you are one of those developers who still hasn't made the switch from SMS to GCM, you must know that the SMS protocol is neither encrypted nor safe against spoofing attacks. What's more, an SMS can be read by any app on the user's device that has the READ_SMS permission.

GCM is a lot more secure and is the preferred way to push messages to an app because all GCM communications are encrypted. They are authenticated using regularly refreshed registration tokens on the client side and a unique API key on the server side.

Use ProGuard Before Publishing

Security measures built into an Android app can be severely compromised if attackers are able to get their hands on the source code. Before you publish your app, it is recommended to make use of a tool called ProGuard, which is included in the Android SDK, to obfuscate and minify source code.

Android Studio automatically includes ProGuard in the build process if the buildType is set to release. The default ProGuard configuration available in the Android SDK's proguard-android.txt file is sufficient for most apps. If you want to add custom rules to the configuration, you can do so inside a file named, which is a part of every Android Studio project.


Android applications have their own identity enforced by the system. If you use one of these mechanisms you need to be sure you are talking to the right entity — you can usually validate it by knowing the permission associated with the right you are exercising. If you are exposing your application for programmatic access by others, make sure you enforce permissions so that unauthorized applications can’t get the user’s private data or abuse your program. Make your applications security as simple and clear as possible.